Think South: How We Got Six Men and Forty Dogs Across Antarctica

Chapter 14: The Treaty

“I assure you the Soviet Union takes its role very seriously.” He paused and the eyebrows went up again. “I think you can expect that we will be changing our position from one in favor of the minerals convention to a new position in favor of no mining at all.” Mr. Shevardnadze spoke calmly and clearly. This was news.

“When?!” I blurted out from where I sat across the table. He looked at me as if to memorize my face, and I held my breath and blushed. I didn’t mean to put him on the spot. I didn’t mean to speak at all. But this was everything we’d hoped and more. It just came out.


Video: Jean-Louis reading a message from President George Bush (minute 7:00) at the expedition's finish.

 Website: US State Department synopsis of the Antarctic Treaty

Website: Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty

Photo: Map of the national claims on Antarctica, should the treaty lapse

Article: Dangers to Antarctic waters from cruise and other ships prompts new regulations in 2014.

Article: Bush changes mind on Antarctic Treaty, LA Times, July 4, 1991

Document: Letter from President Bush to Senate urging ratification of Environmental Protocol

Article: "Russia's Long-game in Antarctica runs political risk," 2016 look by Global Risks Assessment at the changing politics in Antarctica and threats to the treaty's continuation.

Article: Synopsis of Yang Shangkun's life and involvement in the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, on the occasion of his death, from the Economist

Article: "My Friend Eduard Shevardnadze" by Howard Baker, Washington Post

Website: Biography of François Mitterrand.

Wikipedia: About prime minister Toshiki Kaifu.

Website: Information on the Yema watch designed by Jean-Louis Etienne and gifted to President Mitterrand.

Animation: Excellent animation explaining the Antarctica ocean ecosystem, from Pew Charitable Trusts

The International Trans-Antarctica Expedition meets President Bush on in the White House Rose Garden. From Left: Will Steger, Cathy de Moll, Senator Dave Durenberger, First Lady Barbara Bush, President George Bush. Behind: Victor Boyarsky, Jean-Louis Etienne and Keizo Funatsu. March 1990. Photo: Ed Garvey